Nowadays everybody knows the tunes from “Rigoletto” so well – “La donna e mobile (The beauty’s heart)”, the quartet (“Bella, figlia dell’amore (Oh, young beauty)” and others - it’s hard to imagine that once they were considered to be dangerous and too frivolous. Nevertheless the very first readers of the opera’s libretto – those were Venetian censors – found it so indecent that they insisted on introducing some important changes. Hugo’s drama was about Francis I. Censors were worried about the fact that a French king who existed in reality was shown in not a very flattering light. So, some changes had to be introduced into the opera’s libretto. The scene was moved to Italy, the king lost his title and became a duke. The name of the Fool (Tribule in Hugo’s book) was substituted for Rigoletto.
That name, which, as some people think, is “as easy to swallow as soup or fresh bread” gave a name to the opera as well.
Conductor-Director – Honored Artist of Russia Vladimir Kovalenko
Production Director and Choreograph – Mikhail Kisliarov (Moscow)
Conductors – Distinguished Artist of Russia Boris Benkogenov, awardee of international contests prizes Victor Kulikov
Art Director - Honored Artist of Russia Victor Volsky (Moscow)
Costumer – Olga Oshkalo (Moscow)
Choirmaster-Director – Honored Artist of Russia Valeria Navrotskaya
Choirmaster – Olga Safronova
Lighting Designer – Vladimir Ivakin (Moscow)
Director – Marina Shapkina
Assistant Ballet-Master – Ekaterina Maximova
Composer – Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
Libretto by F.Piave, based on the drama by V. Hugo “The King Having Fun”.